Tag Archives: オレンジ

Japanese Citrus Fruits 1a: Oranges

Satsuma Mikan Basket

Oranges are not only one of the best sources of natural fluids/water for the human body, but its skin is also a very valuable medicinal asset (provided it is cleaned of all insectisides, wax et al!).
Naturally everyone knows about their high contents in Vitamin A beta Carotene and other irreplaceable vitamins.
Combined with other foods it can help prevent cancer like other ctrus fruits!

In Japan, depending on the season, oranges will be called natsu mikan/夏みかん/Summer oranges, haru mikan/春みかん or even fuyu mikan/冬みかん/Winter oranges and accordingly will be available im more varieties.

I will present in a separate posting called Japanese Citrus Fruits 1b: Oranges!


Unshu Mikan Cross Section

Unshu Mikan/温州みかん

The satsuma (Citrus unshiu) is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus mutant of Japanese origin introduced to the West. In Japan, it is known as mikan or formally unshu mikan (Japanese: 温州蜜柑, unshū mikan). In China, it is known as Wenzhou migan (Chinese: 温州蜜柑; pinyin: Wēnzhōu Mìgān). The Japanese name is a result of the local reading of the same characters used in the Chinese, the name meaning “Honey Citrus of Wenzhou” in both languages. It is also often known as “Seedless mandarin” (Chinese: 无核桔; pinyin: wúhé jú). The Korean name for the fruit is gyul (Korean: 귤).
Shizuoka Prefecture is a major growing region in Japan.
Depending on the growing area, they will come up with many brand names.


Valencia Orange

Also simply called “Oranges”, The Valencia Orange is an orange first created by the Californian agronomist William Wolfskill, on his farm in Santa Ana. Its name comes from the Spanish city of Valencia, widely known for its excellent orange trees. Most in Japan are imported from the US for their good value as orange juice.

Miko Orange/美娘オレンジ

Miko Orange Cross Section

A variety grown in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu Island, Miko Orange is difficult to grow and is comparatively expensive, but very juicy with a beautiful aroma.


Setoka are remarkable fortheir rich skin. That skin being thin, it ios very easy to peel. Very juicy and sweet. Slightly bigger than Unshu mikan.

Blood Orange

Blodd Oranges are called so because of the colour of their flesh.
They are particularly popular for fresh pressed juice.

Neburu/Navel oranges/ネーブル

A single mutation in 1820 in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in Brazil yielded the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside, or Bahia navel. The mutation causes the orange to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, it looks similar to the human navel, hence its name.

Because the mutation left the fruit seedless, and therefore sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree.
Today, navel oranges continue to be produced via cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, and are therefore clones, all navel oranges can be considered to be the fruit of that single nearly two hundred year-old tree.

he Japanese varieties are available around February and March, making for an invaluable late winter orange.


-Choose specimen with a uniform colour and bright colour.

-For every 100 g, oranges (enshu mikan) contain:
Energy: 46 kcal
Water: 86.2 g
Proteins: 0.7 g
Carbohydrates: 12.0 g
Potassium: 150 mg
Calcium: 21 mg
Iron: 0,2 mg
Vitamin A Beta Carotene: 1000 micrograms
Vitamin B1: 0.10 mg
Vitamin B2: 0.03 mg
Nyacin: 0.3 mg
Vitamin B6: 0.06 mg
Vitamin C: 32 mg
Dietary fibers: 1.0 g

-Combined with asparguses, or with turnips, or with beansprouts, or with potatoes, will re-inforce the digestive system, help prevent common colds, and help recover from constipation.

-Combined with broccoli, or with chingensai, or with shiitake mushrooms, or with strawberries, will help prevent cancer, obesity and common colds.

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French Dessert: Tourtelettes a la Creme d’Orange/Small Orange Cream Pies


I continue with the series of desserts found in my old notes!
Oranges are coming thick and fast on the markets.
Toutelettes in French mean small covered tarts/pies
French Dessert: Toutrtelettes a la Creme d’Orange/Small Orange Cream Pies!

INGREDIENTS: For 4 persons

Flour: 400 g
Softened butter: 200 g
Sugar: 2 tablespoons
Grated orange skin: 1 whole (organic if possible)
egg: 1 + 1 yolk
Salt: a pinch

-Orange Cream:
Organic oranges: 4
Hazlenuts: 10
Orange, Citrus and Grapefruit Jam (in unavailable, orange jam is fine): 1 tablespoon
Sugar: 1 tablespoon
Eggs: 3
Fresh cream: 2 tablespoons
Thickening agent (arrow root is best. If unavailable high quality cornstarch): 1 tablespoon


-The evening before, prepare the pastry:
Mix flour, 1 tablespoon of sugar, salt and grated orange skin. Add butter and mix. Beat the egg and add, kneading it in as quickly as possible. If needed add a little water. Make a bowl, wrap it in cellophane paper and leave inside refrigerator.

-Next day:
Take wedges out of the oranges. Take off thin skins and discard. Drain. Chop the hazlenuts finely.
In a bowl, mix eggs and thickening agent, sugar, fresh cream, jam and hazlenuts. Carefully add the the orange wedges. Leave inside refrigerator.

Divide the pastry into two parts, one made up of two thirds, the other one of one third.
Let rest at room temperature for 1 hour.
Pre-heat oven to 180 degrees Celsius.
Make 4 circles with the first two thirds about 5 mm thick and spread them inside tart molds leaving the pastry coming over the brim.
Stab pastry with a fork.
Keep inside refrigerator for 30 more minutes.
Take out of refrigerator. Fill tarts with the orange cream up to two thirds of its depth.
Make 4 circles with other third of pastry wide enough to be slightly wider than the molds. Place one circle on top of each tart/pie and secure it by pinching both pastries together.
Make a small hole in the middle and insert a small cone of baking paper inside.
Bake for 20 minutes.
Take out of oven.
Beat the egg yolk with 2 tablespoons of water and brush the whole top of the pie. Sprinkle with a little sugar and bake again for 10 minutes.

Serve lukewarm.

To be enjoyed with a sparkling white wine or lemonade!

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Mint & Orange Peels Chicken


I love chicken! I probably eat some three times a week.
Not only is it to cook, but recipes are illimited.
Just found the following recipe in an old cookbook of mine:

Mint & Orange Peels Chicken!

INGREDIENTS: For 4=5 people
-Chicken: 1 whole
-Butter: 100 g
-Onions: 2 large/finely chopped
-Chicken stock: 400 ml
-Chiselled (thinly cut) mint leaves: a quarter of a cup/50 ml
-Chopped coriander: a quarter of a cup/50 ml
-Chopped parsley and ciboulette (very thin leeks): 2 large tablespoons
-Orange juice: 2 oranges freshly pressed
-Grated orange skin (peel): 2 above
-Crushed walnuts: 50 g
-Salt & pepper: to taste

-In a large thick pan (le Creuset style), drop 50 g of butter and cook onions on a strong fire until they become translucent. Lower fir to medium. Add chicken stock. Add salt and pepper. Put the chicken inside the pan. Cover with lid. Simmer for an hour.

-In a frypan, on a low fire, drop the other 50 g of butter and cook gently all herbs and half of the chiselled mint.

-Pour onto the chicken with the orange juice, grated orange skin and crushed walnuts. Let simmer again for 30 minutes.

-Cut the chicken and serve hot decoarated with the other half of chiselled mint.
Best savoured with plain steamed rice or butter rice!

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